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Simson AWO

Die AWO 425 war (neben der EMW R 35 aus Eisenach) das einzige in der DDR gebaute Motorrad mit 4-Takt-Motor, gefertigt von dem Awtowelo-, bzw. späteren IFA-Betrieb Simson (Suhl).

Die Modellbezeichnungen sind “AWO 425” (Touren-AWO, 12 PS) mit Geradweg-Hinterradfederung bzw. “Simson 425” (Sport-AWO, 15 PS) mit Hinterradschwinge, je nach Produktionszeitraum.

Die “4” steht für Viertaktmotor, die “25” für 250 ccm Hubraum. Es gab eine Touren- und eine Sport-Version. Die Motorräder sind seitenwagentauglich.

Für den Betrieb mit einem Seitenwagen mußte der Kardan gegen eine Version mit anderer Übersetzung ausgetauscht werden.

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Es war für Repräsentationszwecke (Eskortefahrten für Staatsempfänge u.a.) auch eine Version mit größerem Hubraum in Entwicklung, diese wurde jedoch nie realisiert.

Im Volksmund wurden sie auf Grund des Motorklangs respektvoll “Dampfhammer” genannt.

1961 wurde die Produktion zugunsten von 50 ccm-Kleinkrafträdern aufgegeben.

Große Teile des AWO-Bestandes werden bis heute liebevoll gepflegt. Ursprünglich wurde dies in der DDR aufgrund des Fehlens eines anderen zuverlässigen Motorrades gemacht, die Motorräder also tatsächlich über Jahrzehnte nach Produktionsende im Alltagsbetrieb eingesetzt. Heute bietet die Breite der noch vorhandenen Teile einen guten Einstieg in die Beschäftigung mit Oldtimer-Motorrädern.

Simson AWO 425

Dieses glattflächige Tourensportrad in zweckmäßiger Ausstattung hatte sich im Alltag sehr bewährt und war außerdem noch für Beiwagen geeignet. Als Zulieferer für Seitenwagen erwies sich die Leipziger Firma Stoye als sehr geeignet. Sie war vor dem Krieg der “große” Konkurrent von Steib gewesen. Um die AWO mit Seitenwagen zu betreiben, musste die Untersetzung im Hinterradantrieb geändert werden. Wie sich weiter herausstellte, hatten die technischen Unterlagen, die im Juni 1950 erstmals in Berlin-West der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt wurden, sehr große Ähnlichkeit mit den Daten der BMW R25. Als schwierig erwies sich auch die rechtzeitig Bereitstellung spezieller Baugruppen, wie Lichtmaschine, Magnetzünder, Ni-Ca-Batterie, Kolben, Kolbenringe usw. Manche Zulieferer betraten völliges “Neuland” und so blieb es nicht aus, das “Lehrgeld” gezahlt werden mußte. Die AWO 425 hatte eine Hubraum von 247 ccm und einer Leistung von 12 PS.

Der Antrieb erfolgte über einen Kardan, da es im Ost-Sektor nach dem Kriege keine Zulieferfirmen für Motorradketten gab. Sie wurde mit einer Viergang-Fußschaltung mit Hilfshandhebel ausgestattet, welches sich aber als schwach erwies und dementsprechend verändert wurde. Im Laufe der Jahre wurden dann noch etliche Verbesserungen vorgenommen. Ab Januar 1957 wurde sie dann, besonders auf Drängen von Exportkunden aus der BRD, in “Simson 425” geändert.

Simson AWO 425 Sport

Im Jahre 1956 wurde parallel zum Tourenmodell ein sportliches Modell entwickelt, die AWO-Sport. Es unterschied sich entscheidend vom Tourenmodell. Sie hatte außer dem Triebwerk und dem Hinterradantrieb keine Ähnlichkeit mit dem Tourenmodell. Der Zylinder und der Zylinderkopf wurden gründlich überarbeitet, was eine Leistungssteigerung von 14 PS bzw. später auf 15,5 PS bedeutete. Das Fahrwerk wurde komplett neu konzipiert. Eine Teleskopgabel in Verbindung mit hydraulisch gedämpften Federbeinen sorgten für einen guten Fahrkomfort. Durch Alu-Vollnaben mit Stahlbremsringen wurden bessere Bremseigenschaften erziehlt. Die anfänglich verwendete Doppelsitzbank wurde später durch Einzelsitze abgelöst. Wie ihr Parallelmodell, die Touren-AWO, gab es die Sport-Variante auch als Seitenwagenmaschine. Im Jahre 1957 wurde dann die Bezeichnung in “Simson 425 Sport” geändert

Simson AWO 425 Rennmaschine

Schnell merkten Rennfahrer, wie gut sich der Serienmotor der AWO 425 für Rennzwecke eignete. Es dauerte nicht lange und es tauchten frisierte AWO-Viertakt-Rennmaschinen auf. Vom Werk in Suhl wurde bei einigen Motoren Ventilvergrößerungen, Stößelerleichterungen, Vergaser mit einem 27mm Durchlaß und ein genau ausgewuchteter Kurbeltrieb, die dann für eine Leistung von 24 PS bei 7500 U/min sorgten. Am Fahrzeug selber wurden Erleichterungen am Rahmen, größere Zentralbremsnaben sowie ein Renngetriebe angebracht. Kurze Lenkstummel und ein Drehzahlmesser vervollständigten die Ausrüstung. Durch erste erfolgreiche Einsätze entschloß man sich 1952 eine Kleinserie von 15 Motorrädern zu bauen. Damit schuf man in Suhl für Privatfahrer der DDR die Möglichkeit, erstmalig nach dem Kriege eine käufliche moderne Rennmaschine zu erwerben.

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